Cooling Solutions Feature: OSHA, Heat Exposure, And Worker Safety

Building owners and operators need an effective cooling strategy to protect workers from excessive heat exposure.

By Ashlee Tenn
From the June 2022 Issue

Heat-related illnesses and injuries are a very real concern when it comes to employee safety—but accurate accounts of them can be difficult to discern. Knowing that, the Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) announced in October 2021 that it will increase monitoring and investigation of heat-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths. Along with that, they issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) for Heat Injury and Illness Prevention in Outdoor and Indoor Work Settings. This notice is the first step toward establishing a federal heat standard.

heat exposure
An array of Airrex Commercial cooling systems.

In conjunction with the announcements, OSHA invited employers and the public to comment and offer data and expertise on heat stress thresholds, heat acclimatization planning, and exposure monitoring, among other heat-related workplace issues. OSHA received comments through January 2022 and will review them, along with other studies and data, as they establish regulations to protect workers from excessive heat exposure.

In the absence of federal guidelines, many states have been establishing their own requirements for protecting workers from excessive heat. California, Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington have provisions for the type of workplace, temperature thresholds, and employee protections—hydration, shade, training, monitoring, and more—that employers must implement.

Increases In Illnesses, Injuries, And Costs

Heat is the No. 1 cause of weather-related deaths in the workplace. In 2019, heat in the workplace caused 43 worker deaths and at least 2,410 serious illnesses or injuries, although these numbers are considered low due to underreporting. In addition to causing illness and death from heat exhaustion and heat stroke, excessive heat can exacerbate existing health conditions like asthma, heart problems, and kidney failure.

Excessive heat exposure can also impact worker efficiency and decision-making, leading to lower production and worker errors due to dehydration and heat-related mental impairment. Studies have determined that worker productivity declines 4% for every degree above 80° F. Errors also increase dramatically with rising temperatures.

  • 80° F – Errors averaged 5 per hour, with 19 errors every 3 hours.
  • 90° F – Errors averaged 9 per hour, with 27 errors every 3 hours.
  • 95° F – Errors averaged 60 per hour, with 138 errors every 3 hours.

In addition, studies show that hydration alone does not reduce core body temperatures. Climate control is necessary to restore full mental functioning.

These errors, plus the decline in productivity and the increase in heat-related illnesses and injuries, increase the cost of doing business. Excessive workplace heat exposure has also been linked to reduced work hours, increased medical leave, and higher employee turnover, all of which may require employers to hire and train new employees. In today’s tight workforce, this further adds to costs.

Estimates of economic loss due to heat, compiled by the Atlantic Council’s Adrienne Arsht-Rockefeller Foundation Resilience Center, total at least $100 billion annually. This impact may double by 2030 and quintuple by 2050 based on projections of continued heat intensification.

Proactive Climate Control

heat exposure
An inside look into a hospital’s cooling system.

By monitoring heat exposure, facility managers can proactively initiate heat mitigation options before OSHA imposes regulations for those exposures. Depending upon the type of environment, options may include implementing centralized climate control or using portable cooling products, such as evaporative cooling fans. Evaporative cooling fans work well for large spaces, such as warehouses and manufacturing facilities, where the air is dry. Cooling towers are another option to reduce heat exposure. These tie into permanent systems without interruption to provide supplemental cooling. Companies may also want to consider establishing cooling stations that incorporate access to hydration in conjunction with portable cooling products.

When deciding on a cooling solution, employers need to determine whether to invest in owning the equipment or renting it. Questions to ask when making the decision include:

  • Is it necessary to maintain financial flexibility and free up capital?
  • Is the business in need of constant cooling year-round?
  • If the risk of heat exposure is seasonal, is there ample storage to house and maintain the equipment in the offseason?

Renting cooling equipment may be the most cost-effective solution if the business is only in need of it periodically. Whichever the case, it’s critical for employers to take steps to protect workers from heat exposure and related illnesses and injuries—and they can start today.


Tenn is a National Product Manager for Sunbelt Rentals Climate Control Services. Sunbelt Rentals has experts to provide industry leading solutions and equipment specializing in temporary cooling, dehumidification, heating, and indoor air quality equipment.

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